Social Developments

Human is the means and purpose of development. Education and health are two important components of human development. Human capital is the critical inputs in the process of development of societies. Education and health along with ethics and work discipline constitute human capital. Health is the best resource, and education is the means to escape underdevelopment. The people of Harari values health and education dearly. The Harari region exerts efforts to harness its human resource for the development of the people. It recognizes the fact that human resource is the key to achieve knowledge based economy.


Harari was once one of the centers of Islamic thinking in Ethiopia. Early Islamic teaching has its bearing on Harari culture towards modern education.

In 2015, the gross and net enrollment ratios in primary level education in the Harari region were 101.8 per cent, 92.1 per cent, respectively. In the same fiscal year, the gross and net enrollment ratios in the secondary school in the region were 35.4 per cent, and 30.2 percent, respectively. These ratios of the secondary school enrollment are greater than the national average. The net enrollment ratio in the secondary school in Ethiopia in 2015 was 21 per cent.



The Harari people value modern health. Scholars from the community tend to specialize in health related fields. In 2015, there were 8 hospitals, 8 health centers, 55 clinics, and 27 health posts. These health facilities were staffed with qualified medical practitioners and personnel. This shows the willingness by the people to pay to modern health services. In 2014, there were 46 physicians, 57 health officers, and 359 nurses in the region.

Such health facilities enabled the region to secure 100 per cent coverage of health services. Coverage on prenatal care increased from 32 per cent in 2010 to 95 per cent in 2015. Maternal death in the region has decreased from 875 in 100,000 cases in 2010 to 675 in 100,000 cases in 2015. Rate of infant deaths has declined from 77 in 100 cases in 2008 to 64 in 100 cases in 2015. Coverage of vaccination for children reached 100 per cent in 2015 from 63 per cent in 2010.

Livelihood Transformation

The contribution of the ancient history of Harar and the associated cultural heritages to development depends on the degree to which their historical nature is maintained. The Jugal that is supposed to bear the historical importance of Harar is currently shrouded by the modern livelihood. One of the major goals of the Harari revitalization package is to restore the historic importance of Jugal. In doing so, actions have been taken to maximize sanitation standards, and transforming ancient buildings in to guest houses by modernizing the living style of the people. In an effort to carry out this program, new construction sites have been established outside the jugal wall.

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